Closing Announcement

After discussion the leadership team has unanimously decided to dissolve the Thiasos in order to allow a different form of Starry Bull tradition to emerge. On June 28th we will be closing the group pages on Facebook and Tumblr. The WordPress site will remain up as an archive and resource. We apologize if this comes as surprising news.

It is our hope that any future expression of the tradition will have more potential and growth. If you are interested in being an active participant in the Starry Bull tradition, please contact Emily or Markos and we’ll notify you of developments.

On behalf of the Thiasos of the Starry Bull we’d like to thank everyone for participating and contributing to the group–our collective experiences here have been invaluable. We hope you feel the same way. But sometimes we must be torn apart to be reborn.

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Orphic Colours

If you find this article informative please consider donating to the Bakcheion fundraiser.

By Markos Gage

Face of the demon Charun, 4th century BCE. (Etruscan)

The Starry Bull maintains and identifies with the Orphic colours white, red and black, when combined together they make the sacred colour named orphninos, ὄρφνῐνος, “dusky dark”. But how did we come to this conclusion and what is their significance to our tradition, what are these colours?

Colour theory has been a major study subject for my entire adult life. By trade I deal with colours every day. I need to know what’s in pigments, how it’s made and how long it will last because walking into this field without knowledge can not only be detrimental to my work, but also to my health*. Given my background and obsession with colour, when I’m presented with these sacred hues I’m quite curious to what they are made of, what colour they actually are and what they mean.

I was first introduced to this colour scheme by Sannion, blog posts here and here. Specifically he turned me on to a passage in the Orphic Argonautika which discussed these colours in the context of Orpheus’ ritual robes and a contemporary Bulgarian healing ritual where the following associations are given: black representing death and the impure, red for human action and white to symbolise heaven and destiny.

In my own studies relating to street performance I’ve noticed these colours popping up in contemporary street shows. The traditions are derived from the modern circus which honours many of the symbols and colours from the Commedia dell’Arte, that in turn followed the customs of the Greek farce and theatre. Throughout the history of theatre these colours have changed in meaning,  but I speculate that they were first used on the theatre masks as red, black and white are the most present colours of the simplified face, e.g. like modern mime face paint. So through theatre alone we see the associations with Dionysos.

If we look past the theatre and literature another source of colour associations is pottery, with literally thousands of wine cups, jugs and assorted earthenware decorated with these colours. Ancient Greek artists like Apelles also used a limited palette of these colours with just the addition of yellow ochre.


Dionysus in a ship, 6th century BCE


Many colours we are exposed to on a daily basis are new. Synthesising colours can in fact be traced through alchemical experiments and early chemistry, but mass production of now common colours like blues, reds and yellows has been a result of technological advancement in the last 200 years. In the past, blues and reds were mostly derived from precious stones, rare inks from sea creatures and butterfly wings. The strongest non-earth yellows were created from a laborious process of collecting and drying animal urine. Up until the mid-1800’s artists palettes were dependant on common earth tones, and naturally, in ancient times the most common, strongest and cheap colours were also these same colours. (The only synthetic colour ancient people had access too was Egyptian Blue, but the secret of making this colour was lost by the Roman period.)

If we consider the limitations of the ancients we can easily guess what red, black and whites were used and when we consider where each of these colours are derived one could point out that they directly correspond with Bacchic ritual sacrifice. So I propose that the actual Orphic colours are red ochre, ivory black and chalk white. By knowing this information we can closely reproduce the colour orphninos.

Red Ochre


All earth based pigments are derived from iron oxide (rust) this includes red sienna, yellow ochre, red ochre, brown umber, mars black and mars red, etc. The variation in colour is a result of exposure of certain other elements and conditions over millions of years or made in laboratories (mars colours). Red ochre is the most common of reds and the basis of soil on earth. It’s also a near colour of dried blood and made up of similar properties, no doubt the Orphics would have noticed the comparison between blood and the pigment, after all, when found naturally with chalk deposits it is called sanguine red.

Ivory Black


When bone is burnt it becomes a distinctive dark grey – near black, aptly named Ivory Black. This colour is the closest we get to literally being derived from ritual sacrifice. What’s more, there is a magical quality of the white bone becoming one of the darkest natural blacks. This is why I believe the Orphic black is Ivory black.

Another potential and apt black is vine black which is made from stripped grapevines, in hue it is similar to Ivory black but sometimes has a cooler greenness.

The last common darkest black used by the ancients is lamp black, which requires a much more intensive process of burning oil and collecting the soot off a copper utensil, the process just seems to intrusive compared to the inherent nature of burning bone or vine as an offering to the gods.

Black is important to note because there is no true black in nature, black is just a dark colour usually of blue, green or red. When tinted with other colours it affects the overall colour of orphninos.

Chalk White


We know from numerous accounts of ritual and theatre that chalk white was used to cover faces as masks. It holds a sacred significance in Orphic belief from the story of the death of Zagreus Dionysos, where the Titans used it to hide their features from the god child. Chalk is calcium carbonate which is petrified bone and shell that has gone through a compositionally changed process over millions of years. Like red ochre it is a common earth element that has been used extensively in ancient times until now. In Greece today houses and roads are still painted in chalk.

Chalk white is not an opaque white which means when exposed to water it becomes translucent and is a suitable filler and binder for other pigments. Therefore if it was mixed with ivory black and red ochre to make orphninos it would have only a slight effect on the overall hue, but as a binder it would develop into a paste and give the other pigments greater adhesive integrity. The hue would dry lighter than the paint and result in a uniformed matt finish.

The only alternative white that is opaque is flake white (lead white) which was used by the Romans in cosmetics. But all accounts specifically state that the white used in ritual is chalk.


So what is the colour of the “dusky dark” orphninos? Here’s the thing with colour theory, in ideal colour theory orphninos is a shaded red that has had its value saturated or desaturated by black and white. It’s always red, as it’s the only colour on the palette.

In reality however chalk white and ivory black are colours and retain elements of that colour. For example: you can make green out of yellow ochre and black, a grey blue out of black and white. The colour value of ivory black maintains elements of blue or green and when mixed with red ochre it produces a muddy, warm grey purple. The tonal value of this grey can be manipulated by chalk.

If another black is used, ie. Vine black this will affect the colour of orphninos.

Below are examples of what it may appear as.

Ideal colour**, Proposed orphninos with ivory black, far right which is a shade of pseudo ivory black (warm blue grey) and red ochre combined.


Ideal colour, Proposed orphninos with vine black, far right which is a shade of pseudo vine black (cool green grey) and red ochre combined.


For comparison, below is a digital spectrum colour test. Note the last colour on the right is a shade of spectrum red, it’s identical to the red in the centre but the value has been changed by the pure black and white.

Pigment colour test.



The warm grey area is what I propose is orphninos. The saturation value of this colour is changed by the addition of chalk.




* Why I need to know about pigments:
1 Even with laws preventing paints being made by toxic heavy metals like lead, there are still colours that are derived from toxic materials. Most of these colours are benign to handle and touch, however their toxic properties can be activated when combined with other chemicals. (e.g. fast drying mediums, alkyd resins.)
2 The best professional grade art materials still have issues with light fastness. This means they are very susceptible to UV / sunlight and fade.
3 Some pigments are made out of compositionally opposite materials and do not mix well with other pigments. Resulting in muddy uncontrolled colours.
4 Art suppliers rip off artists and sell the same colours as a another colour with added white. Essentially diluted colours are pitched as different colours. You only know this if you know and check the pigment numbers of paints.

**Digital colour test info:

Colour samples sourced from a paint manufacture hex no. comparison catalogue. Colours vary by manufacture. I chose the hues from the list and judged by my own knowledge of colours. The actual blacks in reality appear quite dark. An untrained eye would not know the difference between the blacks, but the hex is the colour translated through a computer and outputted by a light based screen, stripping away the darkness.

If you find this article informative please consider donating to the Bakcheion fundraiser.

Saturday Chat: Purification & Mask Festivals

Hello, followers!

On Saturday, 16 May, at 17:00 EDT, we’ll be having a Skype chat about two festivals coming up next week in the Starry Bull tradition: the Purification Festival, and the Mask Festival.

Both of these festivals are moveable-date festivals, which means the date on which they are to be celebrated is divined every year.  This year, they happen to fall in the same week, bridging the transition from the month of Agreuión (”He Who Hunts”) and Melanaigión (”He of the Black Goat-Skin”).

The Purification Festival falls on Monday, 18 May, an interesting date–in the lunar calendar, the daylight hours form the last day of the old lunar month, which are sacred to the Dead and the Khthonioi (Underworld Gods), but sundown marks the transition to the new lunar month; definitely a good time to cleanse oneself of the old and welcome the new!

The Mask Festival falls on Thursday, 21 May, right at the beginning of the month of Melanaigión.  This month is named for an epithet of Dionysos associated with katharsis/ritual purification and theater–definitely an appropriate time for masks.

These festivals’ names are intentionally vague.  Followers of the Starry Bull tradition can make these rituals as simple or as complex as they wish.  Come join us to talk about the importance of purification in the Starry Bull tradition, various ways of purifying oneself, the significance of masks and theater, and ideas for how to celebrate these festivals.  We hope to see you there!

Tuesday / Thursday Chat: Almost the Starry Bull Pantheon

While we have a definite list of Deities, Daimones, Spirits, and Deified Mortals making up the Starry Bull Pantheon, it’s pretty natural to feel drawn to Deities outside this Pantheon as well.  In fact, the Starry Bull tradition does not necessarily have to be one’s exclusive practice.  We have adherents who are Hellenic polytheists, Magna Graecian polytheists, initiated Wiccans, members of the ADF, and some folks orbiting the Thiasos are various stripes of Heathen.

So, let’s talk about blending the Bull with other traditions.  Let’s talk about syncretism within our tradition.  Let’s talk about Deities who are tangentially part of this tradition, and about how to tell if Deities are interested in taking part.

Join us in Skype on Tuesday, 12 May at 20:30 EDT; and on Thursday, 14 May, at 21:30 EDT for this chat.  PM us if you haven’t joined a chat yet and are interested in doing so.

And for those interested, you can find a list of Deities and Daimones we’ve already identified as being tangentially involved in the Starry Bull pantheon (without being a confirmed member of it) at the bottom of the Pantheon portion of this blog.

The Starry Bull


Disclaimer: This is my current interpretation of the Starry Bull. Views and ideas may change for myself and may not be shared by other members. ~Markos Gage.

There is a story within all mankind, a story that is not myth, nor fiction, it is part of our psyche, it contributes to our creation and drive: it’s the tale of survival.

Your attention is caught by the cracking of wood and earth. A stampeding beast, a massive blur strewn with blood and gore, heckled with arrows and spears. It’s horns shrouded in a net that veils it’s rage filled eyes.  A wild bull blazing over trees and scrub while a pack of hounds nip at its hooves only to be repelled by a kick. For a moment the bull stands in place rocking back and forth with its horned head arching up sending a dog flying over the breath of its back, until out of desperation the bull leaps into a nearby river.

Through the struggling moans of the drowning bull and the lamenting barks of the hounds is the incoherent but equally wild yells of men. Armed with net and spear they come to the river bank and in a starving frenzy they throw their weapons at the drowning beast. Blood mixes with water and in that second before death the hunters eyes meet with the hunted. Time stops as they are connected in the same act forever, interchanging in roles, hunted and hunter, hunter and hunted.

Death is seen by the killer and the victim.

The hunters return to their village with their prize and find their starving women and children. Despite hunger, the whole tribe leaps up in celebration at the hunters return greeting them with praise and merriment, the hunters are heroes. They all prepare a great feast and eat the flesh of their kill, they all experience euphoria as they become one with their prey.

Afterwards while relaxing by the fire, the sun dies and the stars become visible and in those blazing dots they see the day’s events unfold again. The hunters name the stars and retell of their exploits, of killed dogs, the river and the bull. A narrative develops, the elements become characters and locations.

The hounds become fourteen victims doomed to the minotaur, the river becomes the labyrinth, the hunters become Theseus.

Through the flesh of the bull the hunters grow old, unable to keep providing for the tribe themselves they show others.  They become the story tellers, the masters of the mysteries and through rites of death and rebirth they teach the youth the holy tales and initiate them into adulthood.

Over generations these hunters learn to grow food, they see the same process of death and rebirth in the seasons, in the day and night, in the earth, in the very plants they grow and in themselves. The tale of eternal life that differs each time its told.

Sometimes the hunter is a lover who lost his love and confronts death itself to find her again. Sometimes the bull is a god-child and the hunters are titans. Other times the hunter is the god of the underworld who steals the goddess of spring which brings winter.

It’s always a different tale, but no matter the telling the themes are always the same. Something is lost, something is gained / something is killed, something is reborn. At the centre of this tale are two opposing forces, hunter and hunted, both one and the same, always one destroying the other in order to become the survivor. Be it: the crushing of grapes to ferment wine, the burial of seeds to spout as plants, cutting and gathering of the harvest, the grinding of grain to make flour, the marriage of husband and wife, the loss of virginity to give birth, the coming to age, initiation into the mysteries, the killing of the bull.

It’s in these instances we see ourselves and see that we are part of this ongoing narrative, both the antagonist and protagonist of our own tale of survival. The Starry Bull is our antagonist, our direct opposite, as such: it is a god, it is an animal, of the stars and the earth, it is part man – part beast. When we thrust our weapon into it and look at its dying eyes we see the reflection of ourselves and when we consume its flesh we become one with it.

That is the Starry Bull.

Tuesday & Thursday Chats: The Labyrinth!

The labyrinth, represented on our logo as the classic “Minoan” seven-circuit labyrinth, is one of our key symbols in the Thiasos of the Starry Bull.  Dense with symbolism, it stands as a shorthand for many of our tenets and beliefs, including (but not limited to):

  • The cyclical nature of self-development and liberation;
  • The circuitous and inscrutable paths we walk during the course of our lifetime (or lifetimes, if you believe in reincarnation);
  • The twisting, turning, confusing ways our souls walk the Underworld after death;
  • The cycle of birth, death, and rebirth;
  • The labyrinth of Krete, home of Asterios the Minotaur (brother to Ariadne); and
  • The various initiatory paths first trod by Dionysos.

There is a lot of fertile ground (hah!) to cover here, ranging from an intro-level discussion of why the Labyrinth is related to our path, up through musings on the connection between the Underworld, real life, dreams, and the hodgepodge of other planes/realms commonly called the “astral.”

Come an join us for a Skype chat on Tuesday at 20:30 EDT, and on Thursday at 21:30 EDT, about this deceptively simple symbol.  You must be a legal adult in your area of residence to participate in the Starry Bull Skype chats.

And if you want some extra food for thought, check out a modern Bacchic Orphic take on the Labyrinth’s story.

And speaking of things to check out, check out some Dionysian swag!  These t-shirts, white on black backgrounds, are up for sale for a pretty good price.  Each t-shirt sold not only gets YOU an awesome piece of clothing suitable for ritual use OR everyday wear, but also helps fund travel to Many Gods West for participants in a Dionysian ritual!

Saturday Chat: Maiuma!

Hello, readers!  Just making a quick announcement about our upcoming Saturday Chat.  We will be meeting at 16:00 EDT in Skype to discuss an upcoming festival in the Starry Bull calendar–the Maiuma.

The Maiuma is a festival celebrating the union of Dionysos and Aphrodite.  While Aphrodite was not a wife of Dionysos–that position is Ariadne’s–there is a good bit of overlap between Aphrodite and Ariadne in ancient cultus, and medieval tradition mentions Bacchus and Venus as important figures in the world of the Fair Folk.

Here are some links you may find useful:

  • One of the original posts on Aphrodite’s role in the Starry Bull tradition.
  • Another post from Sannion on Aphrodite’s more frightening side (believe it or not, the original version of this essay showed up on his blog in 2012).
  • A collection of primary sources referencing the ancient Maiuma.
  • One of theheadlesshashasheen‘s posts that alludes to the vast network of connections between Aphrodite, Venus, medieval Fair Folk lore, and the Sibyl (an ancient prophetess who lived at Cumae, very close in proximity to one of the biggest centers of Dionysian worship in southern Italy).
  • A divination system you can create and dedicate to Aphrodite!

Tuesday / Thursday Chat: Syncretism and the Starry Bull Tradition

Hello, folks!  We will be holding our regular Skype chats this week on Tuesday, 21 April, at 20:30 EDT and Thursday, 23 April, at 21:30 EDT.  If you have not joined us before and wish to do so, send us a message over Facebook or here on tumblr and we can get you in to the chat.

This week, we will be talking about syncretism.  The Starry Bull tradition is itself syncretic, as it relates strongly to the traditions of Magna Graecia–the regions of southern Italy and Sicily colonized by settlers from Hellas.  Sicily in particular was a major crossroads of the ancient Mediterranean, and contained religious elements from Italy, Hellas, Carthage and the Levant Coast, Egypt, Thrace, Asia Minor, and a host of other places, and our brand of Bacchic Orphism has strong roots in Thrake and Italy in particular.

That said, the Starry Bull tradition does not wish to claim exclusivity on anyone’s religious practice–we have followers who are Hellenic Polytheists, Orphic Goetes, initiated Wiccans, devotees of Shiva, and I’ve even heard rumors of a few Kemetics (though they have not been vocal).  Dionysos being who He is, He’s ensured that this tradition can blend pretty seamlessly into the religious life of anyone who wishes to walk the Labyrinth.

If you’d like to know more, here are a few sites you can check out:

  1. Light[Ning] Illuminates: a blog run by a Dionysian who follows a Tantric Yogic approach.  (You can read one of the author’s posts about this pathhere on the Thiasos of the Starry Bull’s WordPress, too.)
  2. Sannion’s post on Shadrapa, a Phoenician Deity syncretized with Dionysos.
  3. Lykeia’s page on the syncretism of Dionysos and Vishnu.
  4. A sample of the historical syncretism between Dionysos and Sabazios.
  5. P. Sufenas Virius Lupus’ column about syncretism at
  6. One of Sannion’s posts on the links between John the Baptist and Orphic traditions.
  7. A post from Galina Krasskova, a friend of the Thiasos and devotee of Odin, who also includes Dionysos in her religious practice.
  8. One of theheadlesshashasheen‘s posts about the complex web of history and syncretism linking Hellenic polytheism, the Religio Romana, indigenous European faery traditions, and medieval Christianity.